First synthesized in 1983, Phenylpiracetam is a modification of the nootropic Piracetam . The primary alteration to Phenylpiracetam from its predecessor is the addition of a phenyl group– a small change that has made phenylpiracetam significantly more potent than Piracetam, even at much smaller dosages . Phenylpiracetam’s cognitive enhancing effects are reportedly achieved by increasing the density and number of acetylcholine, dopamine, GABA, and glutamate receptors in the brain . Through this mechanism, research suggests that Phenylpiracetam increases functional activity at the neurotransmitter binding sites most important for memory and cognition. While Phenylpiracetam is commonly used by nootropic users to enhance alertness, mental clarity, and learning– it is officially recognized as a psychostimulant, and, as such, it is a banned by WADA for use in competitive sports .
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