Grape Seed Extract is exactly what it sounds like. It is an extract taken from the seeds of grapes, whose primary active ingredient is an abundance of Procyanidins . Procyanidins are groups of catechin molecules, and occur naturally in many food sources, primarily fruits and teas . Procyanidins appear to have neural antioxidant properties, and have also demonstrated a potential to promote higher Nitric Oxide levels . Procyanidins have a measurable bioavailability in humans, but at a relatively low amount .
Where to Purchase
How to take
On an Empty Stomach on an As Needed Basis
100-150 mg per serving
1. Kijima, I., Phung, S., Hur, G., Kwok, S., & Chen, S. (2006). Grape seed extract is an aromatase inhibitor and a suppressor of aromatase expression. Cancer research,66(11), 5960-5967.
2. Da Silva, J. M. R., Darmon, N., Fernandez, Y., & Mitjavila, S. (1991). Oxygen free radical scavenger capacity in aqueous models of different procyanidins from grape seeds.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 39(9), 1549-1552.
3. Kim, Y., Choi, Y., Ham, H., Jeong, H., & Lee, J. (2012). Antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of oligomeric and polymeric procyanidin fractions from defatted grape seed in PC12 cells. Journal of medicinal food, 15(5), 490-494.
4. Feng, Z., Wei, R., Hong, Q., Cui, S., & Chen, X. (2010). Grape seed extract enhances eNOS expression and NO production through regulating calcium‐mediated AKT phosphorylation in H2O2‐treated endothelium. Cell biology international, 34(10), 1055-1061.
5. Sano, A., Yamakoshi, J., Tokutake, S., Tobe, K., Kubota, Y., & Kikuchi, M. (2003).Procyanidin B1 is detected in human serum after intake of proanthocyanidin-rich grape seed extract. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 67(5), 1140-1143.
6. Baba, S., Osakabe, N., Natsume, M., & Terao, J. (2002). Absorption and urinary excretion of procyanidin B2 [epicatechin-(4β-8)-epicatechin] in rats. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 33(1), 142-148.